Abrasion Resistance: The ability of a material or surface to withstand mechanical action such as rubbing, scraping, or erosion, that tends progressively to remove material from its surface.
ABS: Abbr. The American Bureau of Shipping http://www.eagle.org
Alloy Steel: A steel to which one or more alloying elements other than carbon have been deliberately added to achieve a particular physical property.
AISI: Abbr. American Iron and Steel Institute, defines the standardised numbered AISI steel grades by American Iron and Steel Institute http://www.steel.org
API: Abbr. American Petroleum Institute http://www.api.org
Attachments: Any attachment, such as hooks or links, should have a rated Work Load Limit at least equal to the chain with which it is used.


Black: Term used to describe a metal product that is in its natural state and has not been galvanised.
Break Load: The load at which a product may fail and release the load.
Break Strength: See Break Load
BS: Abbr. British Standard
BV: Abbr. Bureau Veritas http://www.bureauveritas.com


Carbon Steel: Lower grade steel, generally 300 MPa
Cast Steel: Material used in the casting process to manufacture a product. The molten material is poured into a mould and left to harden.
Chain Size: The diameter of the chain link material
Chemical Resistance: The ability of a material to withstand exposure to acids, alkalis, solvents and other chemicals.
Clevis Type: The u-shaped top fitting on a hook that allows for direct connection between chain and hook without the need for a connecting link. Also know as pin coupling.
Competent Person: An individual who through knowledge, experience and training is able to perform certain tasks within the lifting and rigging industry. A formal certificate from ECSA may be required depending on the task. See also LMI and LTI.


DIN: Abbr. Deutsches Institut für Normung (German Institute for Standardisation), the German national organisation for standardisation and is that country’s ISO member body. http://www.din.de
DNV GL: Abbr. Det Norske Veritas Germanischer Lloyd, international organisation for standardisation. https://www.dnvgl.com
Drop Forged: Method of manufacturing a product. The product is hot formed using a stamping process.
Duty Rating: The number of repetitive cycles a product is required to perform during testing. Also called E.D. Rating.


ECSA: Abbr. Engineering Council of South Africa: The governing body and statutory leg of the engineering profession.
EIPS: Abbr. Extra Improved Plough Steel
EG: Abbr. Electro Galvanised
Electro Galvanised: Method of finishing an electric current is used to induce a chemical reaction to coat steel with zinc.
EN: Abbr. European Norm: Technical European Standards developed by the European Committee for Standardisation to harmonise material or product specifications.
Eye Type: The round top fitting on a hook that only allows connection between the chain and the hook with a connecting link.


Factor of Safety: Industry term denoting theoretical reserve capability. Usually computed by dividing the catalogue stated ultimate load by the catalogue stated Work Load Limit and generally expressed as a ratio, for example 5:1.
FC: Abbr. Fibre Core: Inner core of a wire rope made from man made fibre material.
Forged High Alloy Steel: Method of manufacturing a product by forming it into shape with a hydraulic machine and then heat treating the product. High alloy steel provides better mechanical properties or greater resistance to corrosion.
Forged Steel: Method of manufacturing a product by forming it into shape with a hydraulic machine and then heat treating the product. Also see drop forged and fully forged.
FOS: Abbr. Factor of Safety
Fully Forged Steel: Refers to the process of making steel objects by forming them into shape with hydraulic machines (as opposed to casting), and then heat treating the product. Fully forged steel is stronger and less prone to cracking than cast parts.


Hard Eye: The end termination of a SWR sling made by looping the wire back around a thimble and through a ferrule to create an eye. Hard eyes should always be used when adding end fittings to a SWR sling.
High Tensile Steel: Steel with a higher yield point than that of mild steel and which is used, where necessary, for engineering structures or machine parts.


IACS: Abbr. International Association of Classification Societies dealing with marine safety and regulation. http://www.iacs.org.uk
I-Beam: Steel beam used in building construction.
ID Tag: Abbr. Identity Tag: Used to identify the Lifting Machine or Lifting Tackle. This should be affixed to the item having the information as defined in the various specifications permanently embossed, engraved or stamped. For slings, this should not be a washer.
ISO: Abbr. International Standards Organisation http://www.iso.org
IPS: Abbr. Improved Plough Steel
IWRC: Abbr. Inner Wire Rope Core: Inner core of a wire rope made from steel wire.


JIS: Abbr. Japanese Industrial Standard; published by the Japanese Industrial Standards Committee in conjunction with the Japanese Standards Association.


LEEASA: Abbr. The Lifting Equipment Engineering Association of South Africa http://www.leeasa.co.za
Lifting Machine / Appliance: Any mechanical device capable of raising or lower a load e.g. crane, chain block, lever hoist.
Lifting Tackle / Accessories: Any device which is used our designed to be used directly or indirectly to connect a load to a lifting machine / appliance and which does not form part of the load, e.g. sling, shackle, eyebolt. Also know as “Below the Hook” equipment.
LME: Abbr. Lifting Machinery Entity (Companies, Close Corporations and or Sole Proprietors)
LMI: Abbr. Lifting Machinery Inspector, an individual person registered with ECSA, who is able to perform inspections and tests on the lifting machinery/appliances for which they have the required disciplines.
LR: Abbr. Lloyds Register http://www.lr.org
LTI: Abbr. Lifting Tackle Inspector, an individual qualified by knowledge, experience and training, who is able to perform inspections and tests on lifting tackle/accessories.


Mild Carbon Steel: Steel with less than 0.15% carbon Mild Steel: Hot-rolled steel
Mild Steel: Hot-rolled steel
Minimum Break Force: The force at which a product will fracture. This is specified by the manufacturer and is less than the actual break force.
Minimum Break Load: The minimum load at which a product may fail and release the load.
Minimum Ultimate Load: The minimum load at which a new chain will break when tested by applying direct tension to a straight length of chain at a uniform rate of speed in a testing machine.


Nett Buoyancy: The upward force that keeps things afloat. The net upward buoyancy force is equal to the magnitude of the weight of fluid displaced by the body. This force enables the object to float or at least seem lighter.
Nominal Break: The force at which a product will fracture.
Nominal Nett Buoyancy: The average upward force that keeps things afloat. Also see Nett Buoyancy.


OCIMF: Abbr. Oil Companies International Marine Forum https://www.ocimf.org


Powder Coated: Type of coating, which is applied as a free-flowing, dry powder. The coating is typically applied electrostatically and is then cured under heat to allow it to flow and form a coat.
Proof Load: The load applied in excess of the Work Load Limit. At this load, the product should show no visual deformation.
Proof Test: The tensile test applied to new chain for the sole purpose of detecting injurious defects in the material or manufacture. It is the load which the chain has withstood under a test in which the load has been applied in direct tension to a straight length of chain.
PVC Covered: Method of encasing steel wire rope with a PVC sheath.


Range of Lift: Vertical distance that the bottom hook travels between the lowest (extended) and the highest (drawn up) positions. Also known as Reach.
Rated Load: The maximum recommended load that should be exerted on the item. Also used for the Rated Load: Work Load Limit (WLL), and Resultant Safe Working Load. All Rated Load values – unless noted otherwise – are for in-line pull with respect to the centerline on the item.
Reach: Is the distance between the upper and lower load bearing points of a sling or hoist. Also known as Pull to Pull.
RINA: Abbr. Royal Institution of Naval Architects dealing with marine vessels and structures. http://www.rina.org.uk


SABS: Abbr. South African Bureau of Standards http://www.sabs.co.za
Safe Work Load Limit: The maximum load a piece of equipment is capable of raising, lowering or suspending under particular service conditions. The SWL can be less than the WLL if the working conditions are extreme but it can never be more.
SANS: Abbr. South African National Standards
Shock Load: The resulting load for a rapid change of movement, such as impacting or jerking of a static load. A shock load is generally significantly greater than the static load.
Sling Angle: The angle between legs of a multi-leg sling. Usually shown as an angle from the vertical or angle between legs. As the angle between the legs increases the WLL of the sling decreases.
Soft Eye: The end termination of a SWR sling made by looping the wire back through a ferrule to create an eye.
Standard Lift: Standard height a chain block or lever hoist is required to lift or lower a load. This depends on the length of load and hand chain fitted to the hoist.
Swage: The process of clamping together steel wire rope using a ferrule in order to make an eye.
SWL: Abbr. Safe Work Load Limit
SWR: Abbr. Steel Wire Rope


TCLL: Abbr. Thousand Cycle Load Limit; A benchmark value to measure the performance of ropes. TCLL expresses the maximum percentage of the nominal breaking strength at which a rope can be cycle loaded 1,000 times as tested under strict laboratory conditions. Simplified, TCLL expresses the rope¹s resistance against tension-tension fatigue. The higher the TCLL value expressed as a percentage, the higher the resistance against cycle load.
Test Certificate: A detailed record issued by the manufacturer of a product stating Work Load Limit and Factor of Safety. This document highlights the capacity of the product and how it should be used.
Test Load: The force at which a product is tested. At this load, the product should show no visual deformation.
Tolerance: The permissible variation of an object or objects in some characteristic such as hardness, weight, or quantity. The permissible range of variation in a dimension of an object.


Uniform Load method calculation: The method of calculating the Work Load Limit for multi-leg slings using the assumption that the load will be evenly distributed to each leg and that each leg will therefore carry the same force.


WLL: Abbr. Work Load Limit
Work Load Limit: The maximum load which should be applied to a chain, when the chain is new or “in as new” condition, and when the load is uniformly applied in direct tension to a straight length of chain.

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